The Types and Roles of Amino Acids (II)

Posted by beauty33 on January 31st, 2021


  1. Leucine

What is Leucine?

Leucine is the most frequently found amino acid in protein, and it is important for the normal development of infants and children and the nitrogen balance in the adult body. In nutrition, leucine is an essential amino acid for the human body.

What is the role of leucine?

The role of leucine includes working with isoleucine and valine to repair muscles, control blood sugar, and provide energy to body tissues. And it is easily converted into glucose, so leucine helps regulate blood sugar levels.

What are the consequences of lack of leucine?

Lack of leucine can cause the body's white fat to brown fat, and when it is lack of leucine, the abdomen will also get fat easily.

What are the foods rich in leucine?

The best food sources of leucine include brown rice, beans, meat, nuts, soy flour, and whole wheat.

  1. Valine

What is Valine?

Valine belongs to branched chain amino acids. D-valine is also present in some actinomycins (such as Valmycin).

What is the role of valine?

Promote the normal growth of the body, repair damaged tissues, and regulate blood sugar. When participating in intense physical activity, valine can provide muscles with extra energy to produce glucose to prevent muscle weakness. It also helps remove excess nitrogen (potential toxins) from the liver and transports the nitrogen needed by the body to various parts. Patients with advanced liver cirrhosis are prone to hyperinsulinemia due to impaired liver function, leading to a decrease in branched chain amino acids in the blood. Therefore, injections of branched chain amino acids such as valine are often used to treat liver failure, alcoholism and drug abuse. Liver damage caused.

What happens if you lack valine?

Deficiency will cause disorders of the central nervous system of the brain, which will affect the brain, basal ganglia, cerebellum, vestibular system, deep sensory and other systems, resulting in symptoms such as uncoordinated movements, balance disorders, and limb tremor.

What are the foods rich in valine?

Grains, dairy products, shiitake mushrooms, mushrooms, peanuts, soybeans

  1. Cystine

What is cystine?

Cystine is present in a small amount in protein, and is mostly contained in keratin such as hair and finger paws.

What is the role of cystine?

Reduce the body's ability to absorb copper and protect cells from copper poisoning. To assist the supply of insulin, insulin is necessary for the body to utilize sugar and starch. Promote the oxidation and reduction of body cells, increase white blood cells, and prevent the development of pathogenic bacteria. Used for various alopecia; acute infectious diseases such as dysentery, typhoid fever, influenza; asthma; neuralgia; eczema and various poisoning diseases, etc.

What are the foods rich in cystine?

Food: egg, soybean, sesame

  1. Tyrosine

What is tyrosine?

Tyrosine was discovered by Li Biqi in 1846 from casein.

It is produced by the hydroxylation of phenylalanine, so when phenylalanine is nutritionally adequate, it is a non-essential amino acid.

What is the role of tyrosine?

Tyrosine is the catalytic substrate of tyrosinase monophenolase function, and is the main raw material for the final formation of eumelanin and pheomelanin. By studying the synthesis of tyrosinase structural analogues that compete with tyrosine, it can also effectively inhibit the production of melanin, promote the formation of melanin, and reduce the symptoms of vitiligo. It can treat polio, nuclear encephalitis, and hyperthyroidism. It has stimulating and antidepressant effects.

What happens to lack of tyrosine?

Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency can cause severe mental retardation and other neurological disorders, and can cause complications such as liver cirrhosis and liver cancer, which can be life-threatening.

What are the foods rich in tyrosine?

Tofu skin, frozen tofu, peanuts, soybeans, salmon roe, cod roe, tuna, lentils

  1. Arginine

What is arginine?

Arginine is a basic amino acid. It was first isolated and extracted from the seedlings of lupine by German scientists in 1886 and named separately. By 1995, it was discovered that arginine was also present in mammalian proteins.

What is the role of arginine?

Promote the formation of urea. The ammonia produced in the human body passes through the ornithine cycle (the final product of amino acid metabolism is ammonia, but a small part of the ammonia can be re-synthesized into amino acids and other nitrogen-containing compounds, but most of the ammonia will be deposited in the cells and deposited in the body When the concentration is high, it will be highly toxic to cells, which requires the synthesis of urea through the ornithine cycle, and then excreted with urine, so as to relieve the toxic effect of ammonia.) Afterwards, it is transformed into non-toxic urea, and finally excreted from the body, thereby reducing blood Ammonia concentration. Arginine contains a higher concentration of hydrogen ions, which helps correct the acid-base imbalance caused by hepatic encephalopathy. It is the main component of sperm protein, which can promote sperm production and provide movement energy for sperm movement. Intravenous injection of arginine can stimulate the pituitary gland to release growth hormone, which is mainly used to assist in measuring the function of the pituitary gland.

What happens if you lack arginine?

Arginase deficiency is an autosomal recessive genetic disease. Due to the defect of ARG1 gene, the liver lacks arginase, resulting in arginine degradation barriers, reduced ornithine and urea production, and increased blood ammonia content. The disease usually occurs in infants (1-3 years old). The clinical manifestations of patients with arginase deficiency are mainly growth retardation, spastic paralysis, epilepsy and cerebellar atrophy, and they are often misdiagnosed as cerebral palsy in the early stage.

What are the ingredients rich in arginine?

Frozen tofu, wood pine fish, tofu skin, octopus, sea cucumber, sesame, sunflower seeds, raisins, oatmeal, brown rice, black rice, buckwheat, peanuts, popcorn, nuts, etc.

About Boc Sciences

BOC Sciences offers a wide range of high quality research chemicals and biochemicals including amino acids, peptides and resins for laboratory and scientific use. Here is a list of amino acids products:

D-Amino AcidsL-Amino AcidsDL-Amino Acidsβ−Amino acidsγ−Amino acids, Fmoc-Amino Acids, BOC-Amino Acids, CBZ-Amino Acids, Cyclic Amino Acids, Bicyclic Amino Acids, Alkynyl Amino Acids, Fluorinated amino acids, Glyco Amino Acids, Fluorescent Amino Acids, Amino Alcohol, Amino Aldehydes, Isotope Labelled Amino Acids, Inhibitors containing Unusual Amino Acids, Other Unnatural Amino Acids etc.


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