Terbium is a member of the lanthanide series

Posted by beauty33 on December 14th, 2021

Terbium is a member of the lanthanide series,atomic number 65, periodic group III (class) subgroup, lanthanide series element, silver-white metal, element symbol Tb, is a rare earth metal, and toxic. There is only one stable isotope in nature, and there are 20 other radioactive isotopes. The hexagonal lattice is soluble in dilute acid and reacts slowly with water. Has high reactivity. It should be stored in a container filled with inert gas or a vacuum container.

Its compounds can be used as insecticides and also used to treat skin diseases. The preciousness of terbium and its many excellent characteristics make it in an irreplaceable position in some application fields. It is widely used in agriculture, industry, animal husbandry, medicine and health, high-tech industries and other fields.

A brief history of discovery

It was discovered by C.G.Mosander in 1843. Originally named erbium oxide, it was officially named terbium in 1877. It was purified by G. Urbain for the first time in 1905. It is named after the Swedish village Ytterby.

In 1843, Sweden\'s Karl G. Mosander discovered terbium through the study of yttrium soil. The application of terbium mostly involves high-tech fields. It is a technology-intensive and knowledge-intensive cutting-edge project, and it is a project with significant economic benefits, and it has attractive development prospects. During the same period when lanthanum was discovered, Mossander conducted an analysis and research on the first discovered yttrium, and published a report in 1842, clarifying that the first discovered yttrium soil was not a single element oxide, but an oxide of three elements. He still called one of them yttrium soil, and one of them named terbia (terbium soil). The element symbol is Tb. The source of its name is the same as that of yttrium, from the place where the yttrium ore was originally discovered, the village of Ytterby near Stockholm, Sweden).

The discovery of terbium and the other two elements lanthanum and erbium opened the second door to the discovery of rare earth elements, which was the second stage of the discovery of rare earth elements. Their discovery was to find three of the rare earth elements after the two elements of cerium and yttrium. There are five in total.

Distribution of mineral deposits

A small amount is present in phosphocerium thorium sand and silicon beryllium yttrium ore. Terbium and other rare earth elements coexist in monazite sand, and the content of terbium is generally 0.03%. Other sources include xenotime and black rare gold ore, both of which are a mixture of oxides, containing up to 1% terbium.

It coexists with other rare earth elements in monazite sand, and the content of terbium is 0.03%. Other sources include xenotime and black rare gold ore, both of which are oxide mixtures containing up to 1% terbium.

Application field

Medical treatment: X-ray photography used to diagnose human bones and lungs must use terbium. In order to improve the sensitivity of X-ray film, a sensitizer that can emit fluorescence when exposed to X-rays is needed. Tb3+ is used in the sensitizer Gd2O2S, which improves the sensitivity of the film.

Magnetic deflection: The material stretches in the direction of magnetization, that is, the change in size is called magnetic deflection, also called magnetic skew. Terbium-iron and terbium-dysprosium-iron have a large magnetic deflection effect and are used in the print head of computer printers and precision processing equipment. The secret lies in the shape of the flat 4f electron cloud of terbium, and after applying a magnetic field, in order to move the electrons, it relies on the movement of the surrounding atoms that correspond to it.

Activator: Phosphors are used as the activator of the green powder in the three primary color phosphors, such as terbium-activated phosphate matrix, terbium-activated silicate matrix, terbium-activated cerium magnesium aluminate matrix, all in the excited state Glows green light.

Optical disk: As a computer recording medium, the optical disk uses a heavy rare earth element-transition metal element series alloy represented by a terbium-iron-cobalt alloy. During laser irradiation, information is written and read using changes in reflected light magnetized by the surface.

Magneto-optical storage materials and terbium-based magneto-optical materials have reached the scale of mass production. Magneto-optical discs developed with Tb-Fe amorphous thin films are used as computer storage elements, and the storage capacity is increased by 10 to 15 times.

Magneto-optical glass: Faraday rotator glass containing terbium is a key material for manufacturing rotators, isolators and circulators widely used in laser technology. Especially the development of terbium and dysprosium magnetostrictive alloy (TerFenol),

Terfenol is a new material discovered in the 1970s. Half of the alloy is composed of terbium and dysprosium, sometimes with holmium, and the rest is iron. The alloy was first developed by the Arms Laboratory in Iowa, USA. When in a magnetic field, the change of its size is greater than that of general magnetic materials. This change can enable some precision mechanical movements to be realized. Terbium and dysprosium iron began to be mainly used in sonar, and it has been widely used in many fields, from fuel injection systems, liquid valve control, micro-positioning to mechanical actuators, mechanisms and adjustments of aircraft and space telescopes, wing adjusters to individual types The production of loudspeakers and other fields.

Terbium can also be used for non-destructive inspection of solder joints such as ships and pipelines.

Rare earths have many magnetic bodies and luminous bodies. These are the rotation direction of electrons (4f electrons) and the transfer of electron energy that take advantage of the special characteristics of rare earths.

Small amounts of terbium are used in special lasers and solid-state components.


Toxicological analysis

Scientists used broad beans as materials to study the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of terbium. 1. The results of the broad bean micronucleus test and chromosome aberration test showed that terbium nitrate can induce micronuclei in broad bean root tip cells, showing a dose-effect relationship within the concentration range of 3-24\'μg/mL; it can induce chromosome aberrations at 3-12μg There is a dose-effect relationship in the concentration range of /mL, indicating that the rare earth element terbium has a certain genetic toxicity to the root tip of broad bean. 2. The results of the mitotic index test showed that terbium nitrate at a low concentration (3-12μg/mL) could promote the mitosis of broad bean root tip cells and increase MI. But as the concentration increases, MI decreases. It shows that the rare earth element terbium has certain cytotoxicity to broad bean root tip. Relevant research orders stated that the micronucleus index of broad bean root tip cells and the micronucleus index of mammalian cells have a very significant correlation, indicating that the two species at the same phylogenetic level have the same effect on the genetic material DNA damage. It shows that the rare earth element terbium has potential biological effects.

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