Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Posted by Moose Consultant on October 9th, 2018

Pakistan (Islamic Republic of Pakistan). State of South Asia . It borders on Afghanistan , China , India , Iran and the Arabian Sea . Its surface is 803,000 km². It is one of the most populated countries on the planet, with more than 170 million inhabitants, mostly Muslims.

Geographic boundaries

The country extends through the Indus basin , at the foot of the Himalayas , and borders on the east with the Thar desert and on the west with the Afghan mountains.


The Urdu and English are the official languages, living with different native languages like Punjabi (the most widely spoken in Pakistan), Pashto, Sindhi and saraik.

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It is a country characterized by drought and by extreme temperatures and altitudes. The country is divided by the Indus River, which enters from the northeast and flows south to empty into the Arabian Sea or the Sea of Oman.

Physiographic  areas

The Indo forms the line of division of two of the physiographic areas that exist in the country: the plain of the Indus, which extends along the eastern bank of the river, and the Baluchistan plateau, to the southwest. Other four physiographic areas stand out: the coastal plain, a narrow strip of land bordering the Arabian Sea; the Jaran basin, west of the Baluchistan plateau; the desert of Thar (or Great Indian Desert), which is found on both sides of the border with India in the southeast; and the mountains of the north and northwest, at the foot of the Himalayas and the Hindu Kush.


The Indus plain to the south of the northern mountain ranges varies in width from 80 to 320 km and covers an area of approximately 518,000 km2. From north to south there are two important regions, the Punjab Plain and the Sind Plain. The first is the most important agrarian zone of the Republic, taking advantage of the flow of several tributaries of the Indus, such as the rivers Sutlej, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum, although floods are also very frequent due to their torrential nature. Further south, in the lower course of Indo, is the Sindian plain, whose natural aridity is counteracted by the irrigation works carried out to enhance agriculture.

To the west of these plains, a series of mountainous systems, including the Toba Kakar mountain range, the Siahan mountain range, the Suleiman mountain range and the Kīrthar mountain range, border the upper plateau of Baluchistan, a very dry region, which it makes it little suitable for agriculture, where only nomadic shepherds live.


Pakistani music is represented by a wide variety of aspects. From traditional styles, such as qawwali, to more modern styles that try to fuse traditional Pakistani music with western music. Pop music also prevails , and the original soundtracks of his films are especially important. In addition, there are the diverse traditions of folk music.


The northern regions of Pakistan are home to several historic fortresses, towers and buildings such as the Hunza and the Chitral valleys, the latter being the home of the Kalash, a small pre-Islamic animist community. Panyab is also the site of Alexander's battle on the Jhelum River. The historic city of Lahore is considered the cultural center of Pakistan and has many examples of Mughal architecture, such as the Badshahi mosque, the Shalimar gardens, the Tomb of Jahangir tomb and the Fort of Lahore. Tourism is a growing industry in Pakistan because of its diverse cultures, towns and landscapes. To know more about the Pakistan and other nations visit gain knowledge about different countries.

Ruins of Mohenjo Daro, Pakistan

The variety of places of interest ranges from the ruins of ancient civilizations such as Mohenjo-Daro, Harappa and Taxila, to the hill of the Himalayas, the seasons, which attract those interested in the countryside and winter sports. Pakistan also has several high mountain peaks over 7000 meters, which attract adventurers and mountaineers from all over the world, especially to K2. From April to September, national and international tourists visit these areas, tourism helps to become a source of income for the local population. Most tourists come from other Asian countries. In Baluchistan there are many caves for speleologists and tourists who visit it, the cave of the Juniper axis, the cave of Murghagull Gharra, the cave of the AEA Mughall and, naturally, decorated cave.International Union of Speleology (UIS).


Pakistani cuisine is very similar to that of India, with certain Muslim variations. It is influenced by Arab, Turkish and Persian traditions, called Mongol cuisine , and is found, above all, in Lahore. The dishes are less spicy than in India, but they use subtle blends of saffron , cardamom, sesame and cloves, as well as lots of yogurt to neutralize the spicy flavor of the spices . In most menus, there is a wide range of meats and poultry accompanied by spicy sauces (masala), cooked in ragù (bhuna ghost), baked (tandoori), macerated in yogurt (korma) or in the form of skewers ( kebab). The biryani is a riceSteamed, richly seasoned and served in chicken, lamb or fish meat sauce . The pilao is the same recipe, but less specialized, and the sag ghost a lamb curry with spinach.

Most dishes are served with lentils (dal), raita ( yogurt sauce spiced with salt , pepper and cilantro ) and wheat cakes (chapati, paratha or naan). Among the desserts, halvas, sweets with nuts or caramel stuffed with almonds and pistachios, or shahi tukra, cream flavored with pistachios and almonds. The food is accompanied by lassi, iced liquid yogurt or black tea (shai) with milk , sugar and cardamom.

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Field hockey is the national sport in Pakistan , although cricket is the most popular in the whole territory. The national cricket team won the Cricket World Cup in 1992). He was runner-up once (in 1999), and co-hosted the games twice (in 1987 and 1996 ). Pakistan was runner-up at the opening of the 2007 ICC World Twenty tournament held in South Africa, and they are the 2009 ICC World Twenty20 champions held in England. Squash is another sport that has been highlighted in the Pakistanis, with the worldwide success of the class squash players, such as Jahangir Khan and Jansher Khan, who have won the World Open several times during their careers. Internationally, Pakistan has competed several times in the Summer Olympics in field hockey, boxing , athletics , swimming and shooting . Hockey is the sport in which Pakistan has been most successful in the Olympic Games, with three gold medals in ( 1960 , 1968 and 1984). Pakistan has also won the Hockey World Cup four times ( 1971 , 1978 , 1982 , 1994 ). The Motorsport Association of Pakistan is a member of the International Automobile Federation. Pakistan is a member country of the UIS (International Union of Speleology). Each year, the Freedom Rally is an off-road race that takes place during the celebrations of Independence. Pakistan also qualified for the Golf World Cup for the first time in 2009 .


As a Muslim nation, it is strongly influenced by Islamic culture and traditions, however, Hindu and British cultural influences are widespread in the country.

In Karachi there are some of the most important libraries in the country, such as the Liaqat Memorial Library, the library of the Central Secretariat and the library of the University of Karachi. The National Archives of Pakistan, in Islamabad, and the Punjab Public Library, in Lahore. The National Museum of Pakistan, in Karachi, contains important objects from the Indus Valley civilizations, as well as Buddhist and Islamic relics. Collections of important cultural value are exhibited at the Lahore Museum and the Peshawār Museum. In Lahore there is a museum of industry and commerce. 


The majority religion is Islam , although there are Hindu and Christian minorities. Although most of the Muslims belong to the Sunni rite, there are other minority groups among which the Shiites stand out.

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Joined: September 1st, 2018
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