Hand hygiene

Posted by Winnie Melda on November 12th, 2018



            Hand hygiene is emphasized as a standard of care of practice at the onset of the nursing studies. It is important to focus on hand hygiene practices among the colleagues, and the general public to ensure that they remain healthy. Health care workers have a role in ensuring the adherence to hand hygiene since many people and facilities do not comply. Hand hygiene prevents nosocomial infection, but the rates of compliance. It is estimated that 1.4 million cases of health care related infections though there lacks accurate data due to poor surveillance (WHO, 2016). Patients acquire the infections despite the many health care related programs. The lack of access to clean water is a central issue in hand hygiene. Thus, it is necessary to implement a hand hygiene program to increase compliance with hand hygiene and its relationship to nosocomial infection. The research seeks to investigate the effects of low compliance or non-compliance to the infection with nosocomial infection rates. 

Problem Statement

            Hand hygiene is the most important measure of prevention and control of nosocomial infection and can reduce the burden of diseases. However, the compliance with the recommended hand hygiene procedures has been unacceptability poor and with many people not laying emphasis on it (Borges, Rocha, Nunes & Filho, 2012). The identification of different risk factors associated with poor hand hygiene compliance is important in the establishing effective ways of preventing nosocomial infection. The type of infection and colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are increasingly common during the last few decades. Significant epidemiologic evidence supports that hand hygiene reduces the transmission of the health care-associated pathogens and the incidence of health-care associated infections (Barrett & Randle, 2008).   


            The purpose of the study is to investigate the impacts of hand hygiene programs (compliance programs) in the reduction of nosocomial infection. The study involves a rigorous process of data collection by an observer trained to conduct the prevalence of nosocomial infection through screening of patients, and evaluation of the hand hygiene compliance. The hand washing data captures the details of the unit, gender, category of infection, and the activities classified according to the risk of cross-infection. After data analysis, the findings help in designing an education program on the need to prevent the nosocomial infections. 


            The findings from the study will be essential in creating awareness to the public about the need for taking preventive measures against nosocomial infection by observing proper hand hygiene. Thus, the study provides important information to the public health officials and the care providers on the prevalence of infection to nosocomial infection. They use the findings to create awareness to the public about associated benefits of complying with the hand hygiene procedures. The importance of hand hygiene is universally acknowledged by the health organizations.  They recommend that hand hygiene practices and interventions to improve compliance and reduce the health care acquired infections.

Theoretical framework

            The research dwells on a theoretical framework developed by Orem in her nursing theory of self-care deficit. She postulated that people should be self-reliant and responsible for their own care and others in the family that needs care. The theory explains that people are distinct individuals and that nursing is a form of action between two or more persons. The success in meeting the universal and development self-care requisites is a crucial component of primary care prevention and health in general. Thus, it is important to understand the potential health problems to an individual for the promotion of self-care behaviors. Nursing is an art, a service, and a technology and hence employs all the issues in ensuring health promotion. Nursing care seeks to stabilize, control, or minimize the effects of chronic poor health or disability (Parker & Smith, 2010).

            In reference to the research topic, individuals have a responsibility of ensuring their self-care without necessarily the help of a care provider. As such, they need to prevent against nosocomial infection through proper hand hygiene observation. The theory is applicable in the scenario and also ensures compliance with the stated guidelines.     

Assumptions and hypothesis

            The research proposal has the assumptions that non compliance with proper hand hygiene results to nosocomial infection and hence important to reduce the infections by prevention. Other assumptions are related to the research methodology. They include the assumption that the participants will be cooperative, there will be a favorable condition for the research, and that the research data will be a true representation of the research issue of interest. The study seeks to investigate the impact of low compliance or non compliance to the infection with nosocomial infection rates

The research hypothesis states that: “Proper hand hygiene program reduces nosocomial infection in humans in relation to non-compliance.”

Research Question

            The research proposal has a basis on the research question: “Does proper hand hygiene programs reduce the nosocomial infections in humans for a period of three months in relation to non-compliance?

P- (Population)-Humans

I- (Intervention) - hand hygiene programs

C- (Comparison) - non-compliance

O-(Outcome) - reducing nosocomial infections

T-(Time)-Three months 

Definition of Terms

MRSA-methicillin resistant staphylococcus auresus


Barrett, R. & Randle, J. (2008) Hand hygiene practices: nursing students’ perceptions. Journal of             Clinical Nursing, 17, 1851-1857. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2007.02215.x

Borges A., Rocha L.A, Nunes M.J, & Filho G., (2012) Low Compliance to Handwashing             Program and High Nosocomial Infection in a Brazilian Hospital: Interdisciplinary         Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, vol. 2012, Article ID 579681, 5 pages.    doi:10.1155/2012/579681

Parker, M. E., & Smith, M. C. (2010). Nursing theories & nursing practice. FA Davis.

World Health Organization (WHO) (2016) Clean Care is Safer Care: Evidence for Hand   Hygiene Guidelines.

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in legitimate paper writing services if you need a similar paper you can place your order for custom college essay services.

Winnie Melda

About the Author

Winnie Melda
Joined: December 7th, 2017
Articles Posted: 364

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