Respiratory diseases

Posted by Winniem on November 14th, 2018

Pneumonia Essay

Community-acquired pneumonia refers to an acute infection of the lower respiratory tract that often gets associated with symptoms of acute infection as well as acute infiltrate detected by chest x-ray or auscultatory findings consistent with pneumonia on physical assessment. The morbidity and mortality rates of this infection remain elevated despite an enhanced fight from the use of new, potent antimicrobial agents and vaccines.

Pneumococcal infections can occur in all age groups. They are however prominent in the first year of life and increase steadily in the advancing age groups. The death rates caused by pneumococcal infections are also most frequent in the first year of life as well as the advancing ages. They are at reduced levels in the teenage years. Temperature and humidity greatly affect the occurrence of pneumonia and are high in countries that experience winter seasons (Lewis, Dirksen, Heitkemper & Bucher, 2014).

Some of the pathogens that commonly get associated with pneumonia incidences include S. pneumonia, H. influenza, Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative bacilli. The path physiology of pneumonia entails of microorganisms gaining access to a lower respiratory tract by inhalation of airborne particles. Then, get transmitted through the way of the bloodstream to the lung from an extrapulmonary site of infection, or most frequently through aspiration of oropharyngeal contents. It is a common way of transmission of microorganisms into the lower respiratory tract for both healthy as well as ill individuals (Liapikou, Ferrer, Polverino, Balasso, Esperatti, Piñer, & Niederman, 2009).

Pneumonia patients often present with fever, cough and sputum production. The similarity of signs and symptoms of pneumonia with other respiratory tract infections like bronchitis make it hard to distinguish them. However, a chest x-ray can assist differentiate pneumonia from other respiratory tract infections as well as show the presence of coexisting conditions like pleural effusions. The presence of infiltrates on chest x-ray usually indicates pneumonia that necessitates treatment with an antibiotic. The general treatment approaches for pneumonia comprise of giving enough hydration, providing bronchodilators for dyspnea and the control of fever using acetaminophen, ibuprofen, or aspirin. Hydration is significant as it replaces the water lost because of fever, vomiting and reduced intake. Early identification of causative microorganisms is optimal for proper management. The aims of pharmacotherapy for pneumonia include the eradication of the offending microorganism through the selection of suitable antibiotic therapy. Ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin are dosages that are useful for both hospital and community acquired infections, and moxifloxacin is more suitable for therapy of community-acquired pneumonia than hospital-acquired pneumonia.

Most antibiotics used in the treatment of pneumonia have certain side effects. They include allergic reactions, stomach problems and vaginal infections. Age is also a significant factor to consider when prescribing pneumonia drugs since some result to negative side effects. For instance, levofloxacin (Levaquin) and moxifloxacin (Avelox) do not get recommended for children below the age of 18 years since they result in contradictions (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2006). These contradictions include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain or discomfort. They also develop contradictions to women, who are breastfeeding or are in pregnancy category C. Moxifloxacin should get administered 4 hours before or 8 hours after antacids, iron, sucralfate or multivitamins with zinc. Amoxicillin (Amoxil and Trimox) for children gets divided into doses of 40 mg/kg/d. It, however, leads to contradictions for women with pregnancy category B. Prescribed medications work if taken full course despite a patient feeling better within days of initiation of antibiotics.


Arcangelo, V. P., & Peterson, A. M. (Eds.). (2006). Pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice: a practical approach (Vol. 536). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Lewis, S. L., Dirksen, S. R., Heitkemper, M. M., & Bucher, L. (2014). Medical-surgical nursing: assessment and management of clinical problems, single volume. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Liapikou, A., Ferrer, M., Polverino, E., Balasso, V., Esperatti, M., Piñer, R., ... & Niederman, M. S. (2009). Severe community-acquired pneumonia: Validation of the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines to predict an intensive care unit admission. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 48(4), 377-385.

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in legitimate paper writing services if you need a similar paper you can place your order for custom college essay services.

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