This process consists of different steps for the formation of the image and in general consists of a printing process in which a laser diode that is inside the printers or copiers, generates a beam of laser light that by means of a Set of lenses and mirrors reach the surface of a component known as OPC or drum, which is photosensitive and will attract the electronegative particles of the toner to form the image.
The first step in the process of image formation is cleaning and its purpose is to prepare the OPC or drum to receive the image to be printed. In the cleaning, with a cleaning sheet, known by the term in English as wiper blade, waste toner is removed from previous impressions of the waste deposit. This is done while the OPC is rotating so that with the friction of the wiper blade with the drum all the residues of the surface are eliminated.
The second step in the process of forming the image is the conditioning in which the crown or PCR creates on the surface of the OPC a layer of electrical charges leaving it ready for the next step that is the engraving. In the engraving, the negative charges created by the PCR on the OPC are polarized by the laser beams, that is, they change their value to attract the toner ink that will form the image that is printed on the support material.
If at this point we could see the inside of the printing equipment we could see that the OPC surface has formed the image to be printed, which is known as a latent image that in simple terms is a kind of negative of what is will form with the ink on the paper or material to be printed.
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The next step is the development in which the latent image that was formed on the OPC becomes a visible image. In this step a developer roller coated with a homogeneous layer of electrically charged toner passes through the latent image containing positive charges, which causes the toner of the roller to pass to the OPC creating a visible image.
Subsequently, in the fifth step, the visible image of the OPC surface is transferred to the paper or material that is used for printing. As the paper passes through the OPC on top of it, the transfer ring of the printing equipment is moved in order to apply a positive charge to the surface of the paper so that it attracts the toner towards it.
The last step in the process of laser printing is the fusion or fixation in which a Teflon-coated aluminum roller, a pressure roller, a thermistor, a heater and a thermal fuse, which together is known as a fuser or fuser assembly, they make sure that the toner is fixed permanently to the paper. For this the heater raises the temperature of the aluminum roller until it reaches 180 ° C and with the help of the thermistor and thermal fuse that temperature remains constant, then the pressure roller, made of a silicone rubber, applies pressure to the aluminum roller while the paper passes between both rollers.
The aluminum roller heat melts the toner components and the pressure compresses them on the paper. This step is of great importance since, in case of insufficient fusion or fixation, the toner will be detached from the paper and the printing will not have the desired clarity, and toner residues will accumulate in the cleaning pad in excess..
Finally, it is important to mention that in the laser printers and copiers the stages that we have just described are performed simultaneously in different areas of the equipment and on average each printed page passes through the process four times.
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