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A Brief Description of Antigen Retrieval Techniques

Posted by Immuno Staining on March 18th, 2019

The requirement for antigen retrieval relies upon various factors, including yet not restricted to, the target antigen, the antibody utilized, the kind of tissue, and the technique and span of fixation. In view of the fact that they perceive different epitopes, polyclonal antibodies are almost certain than monoclonal antibodies to identify a given antigen. 

There are various techniques to successfully reestablish the immunoreactivity of an epitope. Strategies as straightforward as changing the pH or the cation convergence of the antibody diluent can greatly impact the fondness of an antibody for its epitope. It might be proper to initially have a go at expanding the essential antibody hatching conditions before initiating antigen retrieval. In any case, this progression will likewise require further advancement as far as suitable antibody focus, incubation time, and temperature.

While talking about antigen retrieval strategies, there are two fundamental classifications –

  1. Protease-induced Epitope Retrieval (PIER)
  2. Heat-induced Epitope Retrieval (HIER)


  • In the PIER technique, compounds including Proteinase K, Trypsin, and Pepsin have been utilized effectively to reestablish the authoritative of an antibody to its epitope.
  • The component of activity is believed to be the cleavage of peptides that might cover the epitope.
  • The hindrances of PIER are the low achievement rate for reestablishing immunoreactivity and the potential for pulverizing both tissue morphology and the antigen of intrigue.


  • HIER is accepted to switch some cross-interfaces and takes into consideration the reclamation of the auxiliary or tertiary structure of the epitope. The convention must be improved for each tissue, fixation technique, an antigen to be examined.
  • When all is said in done, HIER has a lot higher achievement rate than PIER. HIER is performed utilizing microwaves, weight cookers, vegetable steamers, autoclaves, or water showers. Microwaves are an undeniably prevalent machine for HIER.
  • These conventions will, in general, include 5 minute times of warmth pursued by substitution of the cradle. For all HIER strategies, slides must be cooled before beginning IHC/ICC brooding periods. HIER is particularly time-, temperature-, cushion, and pH-delicate, and the best strategy must be resolved observationally.

Streamlining and Limitations of Paraffin Embedding

Antigen retrieval may have need of great adherence of the example to the slide or cover slip. Moreover, the system is regularly unreasonably unkind for cryostat tissue segments and liquor fixed tissue. The time, temperature, and pH should likewise be enhanced for every apparatus. To enhance antigen retrieval primer examinations must be led utilizing a framework of time, temperature, and pH mixes.

If you want the more guidance about Antigen Retrieval Methods, you can follow the Boster Antibody and Elisa Experts. You can find them on web portal

Also See: Antigen Retrieval, Unreasonably Unkind, Regularly Unreasonably, Induced Epitope, Retrieval, Antigen, Hier

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