Bone modeling involves two processes where the mature old cells are destroyed by osteoclast while osteoblast replaces them by secreting new bone cells. It is important to classify bones to be able to study them. Their outer bone is a compact bone and has red bone marrow. Flat bones are different from the long bones in that the long bones provides support while the flat bones serve protection purposes. However, both bones have red bone marrow and a compact bone layer. The cortical bone is the hard bone that forms the outer solid bone with more calcium content while the trabecular bone is the inner spongy component of the bone that gives supporting strength to the weight bearing bone. Both structures are components of all types of bones.
The cortical bone enhances the main functions of bones such as support and protection.
The trabecular bone is supporting strength to the ends of the weight-bearing bone.
Trabeculae are supporting strand of connective tissue. They provide structural support to the spongy bones at the ends of long bones. The Haversian system is a series of lacunae which are spaces in the bone. They hold osteocytes as well as ensuring that the compact bone is strong. Skull – supports the structures of the face and protects the brain. The vertebral column – protects the spinal cord and provides stability and balance for the body. The thoracic vertebrae – protects the organs of the chest. Cervical- supports the head Lumber- provides flexibility and movement of the trunk region Thoracic- holds the ribs and protects the thoracic organs. Atlas is the first cervical vertebrae that support the globe of the head Axis is the second cervical vertebrae that form the pivot upon which the atlas rotates. To protect the thoracic organs Manubrium – the upper part of the sternum that has a quadrangular shape that narrows at the top giving it four borders. Body – is the flat, long part of the sternum. Xiphoid process – is the pointed inferior end of the sternum. True are the ribs that are directly attached to the sternum while the false ribs are indirectly attached to the sternum. They are attached to the costal cartilages. On the other hand, the floating ribs are not attached to either the sternum or other ribs. Teeth are not considered to be bones because they are stronger than bone because they contain enamel and dentine. Frontal bone and the skull The right scapula attaches to the right humerus and the right clavicle. The left clavicle is inferior to the right scapula. The upper extremity is smaller compared to the lower extremity. The lower extremity supports the weight of the body, unlike the upper extremity that serves to grasp. However, both the extremities have a similar basic pattern. The coxae are made up ilium, ischium, and pubis. Ilium is the uppermost while the ischium is located behind the pubic and below the ilium. The pubis is the anterior and ventral of the three bones. The right fibula is inferior to the patella The Ossa digitorium or the ossa metatarsal are more radial to the body.
Joints are classified according to either their function or the structure.
Functional – freely movable, immovable and slightly movable
Structural – fibrous, cartilaginous and synovial joints. The future, e.g., coronal suture has the natural ligaments made of the fibrous connective tissue while the syndesmoses e.g. distal articulation of tibia and fibula has interosseous ligaments. Cartilaginous joints Symphysis joints have fibrocartilage while the synchondroses have hyaline cartilage. The presence of the synovial cavity with synovial fluid, The basic patterns of the bones in a pig and human beings are similar. However, these skeletal systems differ in the size of the bones and the arrangement of the carpus bones.
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