Posted by Melda Research on April 9th, 2019
Psychologists normally focus on how individual characteristics can interact with the social environment so as to produce a violent event. Psychologists normally focus on the way mental processes impacts an individual propensity for violence. They have an interest in association between intelligence, learning, and personality behavior. Psychological theories normally help in understanding juvenile delinquency.
The personality trait theory normally relies on the idea that a delinquent will show the physiological and biological similarities to the primitive ancestors. The combination and interaction of different traits tend to form a personality unique to each person. It is a theory focused on measuring and identifying individual personality characteristics (Bartol, 2002). According to the trait theory, it states that delinquent acts mostly violent ones are not rational choices. The acts are uncontrollable, irrational behaviors. Some behaviors such as violence and substance abuse can appear impulsive than rational, and the behaviors inspired by aberrant physical or psychological traits. Some youths argue that they commit a crime because they want conventional luxuries and power. However, the drive for other children include low intelligence, hyperactivity, genetic, disorders, and biochemical disorder.
Intelligence-based theory involves the contemptuous relationship between the matter and the mind. It is a theory that maintains that neuro-engagement with the physical environment tend to establish our sense of well-being, Intelligence-based theory states that the intelligence level of an individual can contribute to their delinquent behavior. However, researchers indicate that there is no link between criminal behavior and low intelligence. Low intelligence may lead to low performance in school. Failure in school can also contribute to low self-esteem (Bartol, 2002). It is a habit that normally result in emotional disturbance, criminal behavior, and conduct disorder.
According to social learning theory, it states that social and learning experience together with expectations and values tend to determine the behavior (Bandura, 1977). The social learning theories hold that children model their behavior based on the reactions that they receive from other people and the behavior of adults and mostly their parents. According to social learning theory, children growing up in homes where violence tend to be the way of life are likely to believe that such behavior is acceptable. It is likely for children to follow what parents do than what they tell them. Adolescence aggression occurs because of the disrupted dependency relationship with the parent (Bartol, 2002). Children with loose ties to their parents have very little opportunity f modeling themselves.
Social learning theory support that if a person encounters messages that are crime-beneficial in association with an intimate member, they are probable to know the definition favorable to crime. Social learning theory tends to relay back on modeling and the apparent condition and also the basic models that behavior stems from one another and every person. Experts claim that the differentiation association shapes a person’s definition of their attitude or the meaning attached to a given behavior (Bartol, 2002). Based on the theory, the people an individual hang out with and people you associate with, will fully influence your behavior, attitude, and also the thought process.
Social learning theory is the theory that law enforcement has the direct and biggest influence. The theory applies in describing crimes and programs across the country that try to fight, and face crimes tend to research this theory for years. Law enforcements consider the theory because it allows the consideration of learning through observation and imitation of other people’s behavior and the importance of the social environment. Law enforcers believe that it is possible to learn behavior at the cognitive level through observations of other people’s actions (Bandura, 1977). When someone learns the behavior, it is possible to reinforce or punish behavior by its consequences just like any other operant behavior. The criminology theory of social learning may be useful in explaining why the criminality occurs and to an extent run in the family.
Self-fulfilling prophesy to any negative or positive expectations regarding a circumstance, event, or people that can affect the behavior of a person in a manner causing them to expect fulfillment of their expectations. For instance, an employer expecting an employee to be disloyal is more likely to treat the employee in a manner that will elicit the response the employer is expecting (Bandura, 1977). Self-fulfilling prophesy the case in which an individual become the person described by the label. Self-fulfilling prophesy can cause problems for young delinquents because the label a person gives to youths become a role and the person changes their life to suit the role.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory New Jersey, Prentice-Hall
Bartol, C. (2002). Criminal Behaviour New Jersey Prentice-Hall
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