USA secret services

Posted by Melda Research on April 23rd, 2019


In the recent past, the USA secret services have been on the limelight for several security lapses. On October 1, 2014, the then secret service director resigned from office following a series of security lapses. Julia Pierson resigned after appearing before the congress committee while an inquiry involves white house incidences. Although much of the focus is given to white, the secret service has the responsibility of protecting other national leaders and visiting leaders. The country has placed great trust and faith in the secret service by considering it as an elite law enforcement agency with men and women who are highly respected, highly regarded and highly trusted. Therefore, the secret service is entrusted with the monument task that they should carry out honorably and with personal sacrifice. With a white house supposed to be one of the world’s most secure places, citizens are left to wonder how on earth the incident happened. The aim of the literature review is to investigate the impact of the continued increase of security lapses within the USA secret services to the safety of its protectees’ and public administration.

  1. Shawn Reese (2014); The U.S. Secret Service: History and Missions. Congressional research service.

Shawn Reese provides an overview of the two main missions the U.S. secret service (USSS). The two main missions include criminal investigation and protection. In order to understand the impact of security lapses, it is critical to understand the mission and role of USSS. Therefore, the article provides critical background information on the mission, vision and activities of USSS. Swan also provides a brief history of the statutes that established and manage USSS. Another critical aspect of the article is the fact it gives some of the policy questions that need to be addressed to improve the efficiency of the elite group of security personnel. One of the key questions the security analyst question is whether the USSS is financed adequately to deal with the increased role of protection. The expansion of the role of USSS has increased the number of protectees thus raising the question whether the agency has the necessary resources allocation to achieve its mission of protection and investigation comprehensively.

  1. Shawn R., Painter W., Nagel J & Daniel J (2014). U.S secret service protection mission funding and staffing. 

Following security incidences within USSS, Shawn, Painter, Nagel and Daniel (2014) provides a fact sheet about USSS funding and staffing. The fact sheet follows the House Oversight and Government Reform committee investigations after an armed person climbed through the white house perimeter wall. The committee investigated whether deficient protection procedures, inadequate funding, insufficient training, personnel shortages or low morale contribute to the lapses. The article provides useful information for the research on the funding of the USSS. Shawn provides an appendix shows incidences of presidential death threats and direct assaults against presidents. According to the appendix presidential concern, has been a major concern throughout the nation’s history. Some of the presidents who have witnessed direct assaults include Truman, J. F Kennedy, Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan, William Clinton and George Bush. Therefore, the source provides essential information to support the need to strengthen the secret service and can also provide vital information in describing the problem statement.

  1. Lonsdale, D. J. (2012). Intelligence Reform: Adapting to the Changing Security Environment. Comparative Strategy, 31(5), 430-442. doi:10.1080/01495933.2012.731962

Lonsdale (2012) explores the performance of US intelligence communities in the post-cold War environment and whether recent reforms enable the intelligence organs to support security policies within the dynamic security environment. The article provides critical information about the theory of intelligence and the intelligence cycle. The article is critical for the current study because it provides three vital examples of intelligence failures post-cold war. These failures include the 9/11 attack, the Iraq war, and the 7/7 attacks. In addition, the article describes several intelligence reforms that US and UK have taken and their impacts on the overall process of gathering information. Lonsdale asks a fundamental question that relates directly to the current studies. He asks “are the intelligence services fit for purpose? Intelligence is a critical component of the USSS, and vibrant, intelligent activities guide most of its operations. Therefore, lapses in security involving USSS related directly to failure or issues regarding the intelligence.

  1. Horn, E. (2003). Knowing the Enemy: The Epistemology of the Secret Intelligence. Grey Room, (11), 58-85. doi:10.1162/15263810360661435

Horn (2003) provides a detailed epistemology of secret intelligent which forms the basis of the secret services. Among the sections of interest in the article include the epistemology of secrecy. The epistemology of secrecy provides a detailed history of intelligence and give examples of how security organs such as FBI and CIA use codes and spying to gather critical security information. Although the article does not directly explore intelligence in relation to USSS, it gives a glimpse picture of the type of operations and intelligence gathering processes. He notes that the dynamic of enmity that is apparent after 9/11 requires vibrant and effective tactical thinking and intelligence. Horn also notes the complexity of gathering information using constrained resources and the effects of such a cumbersome process on the execution of the intelligence.

  1. Gill, P. (2006). Not Just Joining the Dots But Crossing the Borders and Bridging the Voids: Constructing Security Networks after 11 September 2001. Policing & Society, 16(1), 27-49. doi:10.1080/10439460500399395.

Gills (2006) explore the effort by the USA to construct security intelligent networks. The articles provide information about managing security networks. According to the article, the emergence of private-public networks and barriers to sharing information has become integral to various security organs. In addition, the author provides details of which bureaucratic structures and hierarchies interfere with the process of accountability within the secret services. The article provides numerous suggestions on how to manage effective security networks to overcome such barriers. Therefore, it contributes immensely to the current study.

  1. Chad B (2008). Agency of crisis: The Chaos and reordering of presidential security. 

Chad (2008) describes how the secret services respond to shock and crises such as attempted assignation of President Reagan and Oklahoma City bombing. The articles provide vital information about how secret services respond to crises, which is vital to the continued success of the service to protect the presidency. The article provides an important input to the current study because it describes problems of protection. It gives the development of presidency protection and the security measures that have been taken to improve the security of presidents throughout the 20th century. The comprehensiveness with which the article addresses the issue of president security is critical for the current study. It describes every actions and reform instituted after a major security incidence involving the secret service. In addition, it describes the process of readjustment of the secret services after security crises.

  1. Office of the Inspector General (2014). Major management and performance challenges facing the Department of Homeland security.

The Inspector General (2014) report describes the major challenges facing the operations, transportation security, border security management and immigration enforcement and employee’s accountability and integrity. The articles provide a detailed description of the mission of the Homeland security. One of the key interests of the study is employee’s accountability and integrity. Lack of employees’ integrity and accountability has been identified as a major cause of several security incidences involving the secret service. The article provides a detailed description of the number of employees within the Homeland Department and major integrity issues affecting the integrity of these employees. Therefore, the article will over vital insight for the compilation of the literature review.

  1. US Department of Homeland Security (2011). The US Secret Service annual report. 

The annual report provides a clear description of the USSS strategic plans and objectives. In addition, it provides a comprehensive description of the USSS protective mission. One of the sections of the article describes how protection works, the protective accomplishment of the year and the national special security events of the year. The annual report provides good background information about other mission of the USSS including investigative mission, mission support, and human capital. These elements form the backbone of USSS operations. Therefore, it is important for the current study.

  1. Gehrke J (2014). “Politically correct” secret service has allowed 1,000 security lapses. 

The article describes the reports of an internal Secret Service report that indicates that the Secret Services has allowed over 1,000 security breaches and vulnerabilities during the Obama administration. Gehrke outlines the opinions of representatives during the investigation involving white house intrusion. The article is included in the study because it provides details of some of the ways such an intrusion can cause a major security threat. For example, Gehrke describes who such a simple intrusion can involve suicide attacks, dirty bombs another security threat. In addition, the author expresses the concern of the public and the response from the Secret Service on the issue of security lapses.

  1. Carney, C. M., & Baker, K. P. (1986). Relationships between the U.S. Secret Service and the Behavioral and Social Sciences. Behavioral Sciences & The Law, 4(4), 437-457.

Carmey and Baker (1986) provide seminal evidence about the connection between perceived risks of homeland and homeland security preparedness. The article explores the preparedness of the Homeland Department to deal with homeland security incidences. According to the study, the objective risk factors of social vulnerability and built-in environmental vulnerability to do not offer the necessary preparedness measure. The seminal paper is vital in the current study because it shows the evolutionary nature of the challenges facing the Secret Service and the entire Homeland Department.

  1. Haynes, M. R., & Giblin, M. J. (2014). Homeland Security Risk and Preparedness in Police Agencies: The Insignificance of Actual Risk Factors. Police Quarterly, 17(1), 30-53. doi:10.1177/1098611114526017

This seminal paper describes the nature of USSS investigation and protective responsibilities. It also describes the relationship between USSS and behavioral science. Although the article does not outline security lapses or their impacts, it offers a detailed account of the evolution of the Secret Service. It also gives some of the early successes of the USSS, politics that affects its operation and the birth of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Therefore, the article meets the inclusion criteria for this study.

  1. Kemp, R. L. (2012). Homeland Security in America Past, Present, and Future. World Future Review (World Future Society), 4(1), 28-33

Kemp discusses the history, present and the future of homeland security in the US as of 2012. It also describes 22 federal agencies and departments that were unified under the act. Kemp identifies the major security threats facing the homeland security. The article is included in the study because it describes the current risk facing the homeland department.

Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at MeldaResearch.Com in urgent custom research papers. If you need a similar paper you can place your order from nursing school papers services.

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