The Applications of the Anti-idiotypic Antibody

Posted by cjerry on May 24th, 2019

Recent years has seen the development of the anti-idiotypic antibody as a new field of biotechnology research. It has solicited substantial attention from both theoretical and applied research. In particular, it has shown a very attractive prospect as a new preparation for the prevention and treatment of human and animal diseases. This article introduces the applications of the anti-idiotypic antibody in multiple fields.

Firstly, vaccine research. The anti-idiotypic (anti-ID) antibody mimics yet differs from antigens. It’s considered an ideal material for the preparation of vaccines, containing no infectious substance. The protective immune response induced by this antibody may be MHC-restricted, which makes it possible to prepare the heterogeneous anti-idiotypic antibodies that can be applied to the people and livestock. Moreover, the anti-idiotypic antibody comes with lower immunogenecity than traditional vaccines. Many experiments have demonstrated that the immune responses stimulated by anti-ID antibodies in place of antigen-immunized animals can increase the resistance of animals to viruses, bacteria and parasitization to varying degrees.

Secondly, preparation of diagnosis reagents. Although the studies on the use of anti-ID antibodies for diagnostic trials are few, the principle used in vaccine preparation also goes for the preparation of diagnostic reagents. It has been reported that when applied to detect antibodies in patients at different stages of schistosomiasis, the anti-ID antibody that mimics the antigen associated with the schistosomiasis japonicum displays similar sensitivity and specificity to antigens derived from insects. Besides, in the cases where it seems hard to achieve high throughput antibody production, or to label antigens with enzymes or isotopes, the anti-ID antibody may be preferable to the monoclonal antibody.

Thirdly, anti-tumor research. The application of anti-ID antibodies to tumors falls into two aspects. First, through vaccination, anti-ID antibodies help prevent the occurrence of tumors caused by viruses. Second, they can be used for tumor treatment. To some extent, they are capable of reducing tumors or alleviating diseases such as B-cell lymphoma, liver cancer, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, melanoma, myeloma and sarcoma, etc. These anti-ID antibodies, when combined with anti-tumor drugs, function as biological missiles targeting tumor cells.

Fourthly, treatment of autoimmune diseases. Many human autoimmune diseases relate to anti-ID antibodies. Theoretically, the idiotype or anti-ID antibody may alter the the immune network of patients with autoimmune diseases or chronic diseases, restoring the body’s immune tolerance to a steady state. Experiments have proved that anti-ID antibodies in vitro can inhibit humans and animals from generating antibodies against themselves. In animal models, the application of anti-ID antibodies in vivo protects immunized animals from myasthenia gravis, thereby extending the survival time of animals with lupus disease, and improving the clinical symptoms associated with thrombocytopenia and leukopenia.

In addition to the fields mentioned above, anti-ID antibodies can also be applied to protein research, transplantation, and AIDS and contraception. Undoubtedly, anti-ID antibody technology has immense application potentials. In the prevention, treatment and diagnosis of diseases, they may solve the problems that have existed for many years. However, since they have evolved for no more than 12 years from the time when they were first suggested as vaccines, many problems, such as the improvement of preparation methods and immunogenicity, as well as the alleviation of adverse reactions, remain unsolved. Thus, there’s still a long way to go.

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