Periodic Table of Chemical Elements: Definition, Papers, Systems and Images What is the Periodic System of Elements? The periodic system is a table containing the identity of elements that are packaged periodically in the form of periods and groups based on the similarity of the properties of the elements.
Periodic table is a table arrangement of elements based on periodic law
Period is: horizontal lanes in the periodic system
Groups are: vertical columns in the periodic system
The thing that distinguishes one element from another is "the number of protons" and the number of electrons an element or bond in the nucleus. For example, all carbon atoms have 6 protons, while oxygen atoms have 8 protons. The number of protons in an atom is known as the atomic number (denoted by Z).
However, atoms in the same element can have different neutron numbers; this is known as an isotope. The atomic mass of an element (denoted by "A") is the average mass of an element in nature.
Because the electron mass is very small, and the neutron mass is almost the same as the mass of the proton, the atomic mass is usually expressed by the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus, in the isotope which has the most abundance in nature. The size of the atomic mass is an atomic mass unit (smu). Some isotopes are radioactive, and undergo decomposition (decay) of radiation of alpha or beta particles.
Before chemistry became a field of science, alchemists had determined symbols for both metals and other general compounds. They use abbreviations in diagrams or procedures; and without the concept of an atom joining to form molecules. With the development of substance theory, John Dalton introduced simpler symbols, based on circles, which were used to describe molecules.
The system currently in use was introduced by Berzelius. In this typographic system, the chemical symbol used is an abbreviation of Latin name (because at that time Latin was the language of science); for example Fe is a symbol for elements of ferrum (iron), Cu is a symbol for elements of Cuprum (copper), Hg is a symbol for elements of hydrargyrum (mercury), and so on.
Chemical symbols are used internationally, although the names of elements are translated between languages. The first letter of the chemical symbol is written in capital letters, while the next letter (if any) is written in lowercase letters.
Naming elements have long before the atomic theory of a substance, even though at that time it was not known which were the elements, and which were the compounds. When atomic theory develops, the names of elements that have been used in the past are still used. For example, the element "cuprum" in English is known as copper, and in Indonesian is known as copper. Another example, in German "Wasserstoff" means "hydrogen", and "Sauerstoff" means "oxygen".
The official name of the chemical element is determined by the IUPAC organization. According to IUPAC, the name of the element does not start with a capital letter, unless it is at the beginning of a sentence. In the latter half of the 20th century, many laboratories were able to create new elements that had a high decay rate for sale or storage.
The names of these new elements are also determined by IUPAC, and generally adopt the name chosen by the inventor of the element. This can lead to controversy over which original research group discovered the element, and the delay in naming elements for a long time.
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