the efficacy of cleaning products on food industry surfaces.
Posted by hw on February 21st, 2020
It is estimated that the average incidence of food poisoning in Australia is 4.
2 million cases per year;
About 11,500 people are poisoned by food every day in Australia (
New Zealand food standard, Australia, 2002).
These numbers are equivalent to 220 per1, 000 people in the population, compared to 190 per 1,000 people in New Zealand and the United Kingdom, and 175 per 1,000 people in the United States.
The estimated cost of the Australian community is more than .
6 billion per yearAlthough food-
The incidence of poisoning is rising, with fewer than 1% cases reported in the notification plan (
Food standards in New Zealand, Australia (2002).
Changing eating habits means that Australia spends 30% of its food budget on eating out.
About 60 to 80 food poisoning diseases are obtained from the food service industry (
Food standards in New Zealand, Australia (2002).
Various common bacteria are associated with food poisoning because they are present in large quantities on raw and kitchen surfaces and equipment, or because of bacterial survival during food preparation or re-contamination of food after cooking (
Angelillo, Viggiani, Greco, & Rito, 2001).
There is evidence that the survival and transfer of pathogens through the surface of the environment is important (
Humphrey, Martin, Whitehead, 1994;
Nastov, Tan, Dingle, 2002).
The kitchen environment is a contagious tool for people and the public.
Unclean kitchen surfaces and equipment may contain bacteria that pollute food (Rusin, Orosz-
Coughlin & Gerba, 1998).
Bacteria from raw meat and poultry can also be spread through cooked food.
Dust and soil containing dry organisms can lead to the reproduction of bacteria and contamination of food.
Some of the pathogenic bacteria that cause food poisoning include wax-like bacteria, campylobules, E. coli, L. coli, salmonella, S. aureus and E. coli.
S. aureus is considered as a pathogen and indicator of unsanitary food treatment (Buckle et al. , 1989).
It can cause poisoning within four to six hours, and symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting can last six to eight hours.
Infection usually occurs in the kitchen, from infected persons with wounds, bruises, injuries, or nasal carriers (Angellilo, etc. , 2001).
Food preparation areas with cracks and cracks tend to carry staphylococcus (
Collins, Lane and Grange, 1995).
E. coli can grow in food or on a surface that is not clean enough related to food processing.
It may enter the kitchen with raw food and pollute cooked food by hand, surface and kitchen equipment used for raw food and cooked food.
Therefore, the existence of E.
E. coli is a sign of unsanitary food preparation.
Infection may lead to symptoms including diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, and mucosal damage (Buckle et al. ,1989;
Heritage Inn Evanston, 1999).
The hygienic condition of food surface is high for production
Cleaning can be done automatically with cleaning-in-
Place the system or proceed manually depending on the nature of the surface.
Two factors must be considered when cleaning the surface: 1)
Cleaning of product residues and 2)
Disinfect to destroy microorganisms (
Ministry of Health, Western Australia, 2000;
Australian standard, 2001).
Inadequate cleaning may pose a direct risk to the quality and safety of foods exposed to unclean surfaces (Patel, 1994).
Food standards in Australia and New Zealand implement preventive measures in the form of food safety programs based on critical control points for hazard analysis (HACCP)system.
These projects ensure that the food industry minimizes the likelihood of food contamination by implementing two food safety strategies.
First, hazardsis is controlled by the time, pH, temperature and water activity of the food.
Second, personal hygiene, cleaning and disinfection (Angelillo, etc. , 2001;
Max Wang, Linton, 2000).
According to Western Australia of the Ministry of Health (2000)
Through four-effective cleaning can be achieved
Stage process: 1. Preparation--
Remove dirt and food particles. 2. Cleaning--
Wash it at 140 with hot water [degrees]F (60[degrees]C)
And detergent, rinse with clear water. 3. Sanitizing--
Wash it at 167 with hot water [degrees]F (75[degrees]C)
At least a minute, or apply the disinfectant as indicated on the label. 4. Air-drying--
Place benches, counters and equipment in the airdry.
Compliance with these procedures can reduce the spread of pathogens.
It ensures the cleanliness and hygiene of the House
Produce food with safe quality.
The purpose of the study reported here is to investigate the effectiveness of different cloth and disinfection methods on surface disinfection in the food industry according to the standards of the Ministry of Health of Western Australia.
More specifically, this study examined the fiber cloth disinfected in 167 [using hot water]degrees]F(75[degrees]C)
Resulting in the concentration of S. aureus and E.
E. coli is similar to the common cloth disinfected with hot water in E. coli obtained at 167 [degrees]F (75[degrees]C)
Or chemical disinfectant.
Effectiveness of air
Drying was also studied while maintaining a lower concentration of bacteria.
Preparation Method of bacterial suspension
S. aureus ATCC 25923 grows at 100 (mL)
Brain infusion broth (Amyl Media Pty. Ltd.
New South Wales [Dandenong]NSW])at 99[degrees]F [+ or -]36[degrees]F (37[degrees]C [+ or -]2[degrees]C)for 24 hours. Gram-
E. coli UB 1301 was planted in 100 ml ofLauryl pancreatic protein visual solution (Amyl Media Pty. Ltd.
Dandenong, new state)at99[degrees]F [+ or -]36[degrees]F (37[degrees]C [+ or -]2[degrees]Cfor 18 hours.
These cultivation conditions were found to produce about 1 [0. sup. 9]colony-
Molding units per milliliter (CFUs/mL).
The preparation of neutralizer is adapted according to the method described in the Australian standard (
Australian standard, 1988).
Two grams of sulfur (
Analytical reagents, Univar, APS Ajax fine chemicals, reddish brown, New South Wales);
Percentvolume/volume of 100 ml of the 30-inch polyester/Twain 80 emulsion (v/v)
Egg yolk of soybean (Naytura[TM], Yennora, NSW)
In 3% v/v aqueous solution of Tween 80 (Merck Pty. Ltd.
1 L added to 0.
The Neutralizer is sterilized for 20 minutes at 200 Pascal high pressure (kPa).
The Neutralizer verifies the suspension of a test organism containing 1 [0. sup. 9]
The sterilization effect of Zhonghe agent was verified with CFUs/mL. A 0. 5-
Compound of grade monoammonium (QAC)
Hypochlorite acid disinfectant was added to 9 ml Zhonghe agent.
After 15 seconds, add milliliters to the solution to test the organism and shake the solution on the mechanical rocking bed for 10 seconds. One mL and 0.
Count Agar with plates to plated 1 sample in triplicate in two minutes, one hour and six hours (Oxoid Ltd.
Basingstoke, UK). [
Figure 1 slightly]A 1-
Add the mL equal sample of the test organism to 9.
Zhonghe agent 5 ml, no disinfectant.
As mentioned, the solution is mixed and three layers of samples are plated.
The plate is 99 [degrees]F [+ or -]36[degrees]F (37[degrees]C [+ or -]2[degrees]C)for 24 hours (
Australian standard, 1992).
When the platform shows no difference in the number of CFUs per ml, eutralizer is considered valid.
Preparation and inoculation of food surfaceStainless steel grade
304 grade steel kitchen table (
Avista Prite. Ltd.
Kanning Valley, Western Australia)
Mark with a square of 5 centimeters (cm)by 10 cm.
According to the verified cleaning scheme, the surface is classified (
Moore & Griffith, 2002).
Initially, they disinfected it with commercial equipment for five minutes. grade heavy-
Before washing with boiling water, please use a chlorine disinfectant.
Then clean the surface thoroughly with commercial tools
First class detergent and boiling water.
They rinsed three times with boiling water to remove all detergent residues.
All the ground is empty.
Dry at room temperature for one hour (Moore and Griffith). [
Figure 2:A 0. 1-
ML equal sample of two Saureus or E.
Inoculation of E. coli in 50-c[m. sup. 2]surface (
Moore & Griffith, 2002).
The surface is allowed air-
Dry for another hour until there is no visible liquid on the surface.
Preparation of cloth tested fiber cloth including kitchen fiber cloth and all-
Fiber cloth for use (ENJO Pty. Ltd.
Wilton, Western Australia).
These cloth have longer fibers than ordinary cloth, and are still charged to enhance the removal of surface dirt and dust.
The ordinary cloth tested includes the antibacterial cloth and the cleaning cloth (
Homebrand in yanora, new state).
All the fabric is divided into 310. c[m. sup. 2]
Perform a 20 minute steam pressure at 200 kPa.
Surface positive microbial sampling
The control analysis was performed by inoculation of bacteria on the surface without the use of cloth to disinfect the surface. Negative-
The control analysis was performed on a surface without bacteria, but disinfected with a cloth.
The clothes are soaked in 167 [hot water]degrees]F (75[degrees]C)
A minute or a normal-
Use a chemical disinfectant such as QAC or hypochlorite salt for 6 minutes.
Disinfectant was used as recommended by the manufacturer
Use concentration. After the 50-c[m. sup. 2]
The surface was wiped four times with a piece of cloth, asterisk cotton-
Soak the tip swab with sterile 0.
1% peptonewater with neutralizer, surface rinse clean.
The month when the cotton swab was placed into the army.
1% of protein water and neutrals were cultured on a tablet count tablet.
Bacterial samples were incubated in [degrees]F [+ or -]36[degrees]F (37[degrees]C [+ or -]2[degrees]C)for 24 [+ or -]2 hours. The wet-
Surface testing is done immediately after the surface is wiped with a cloth, and they are still wet. Dry-
Surface testing is done after the surface holds air-
Dry at room temperature for one hour.
The bacterial concentration was statistically analyzed with SPSS 10. 0 for Windows (SPSS, Inc.
Convert the concentration of bacteria into a pair value (lo[g. sub. 10])
Achieve normal distribution.
The analysis performed included average concentration and two-Tail pairing t-
Test with confidence interval of 95%.
Results of stainless steel disinfection
Steel kitchen surface in every room
The combination of disinfectant results in the removal of all nutrient bacteria.
Stainless steel rear
The steel surface of the kitchen is left behind.
Dry for 1 hour, total concentration G-negative E.
The concentration of E. coli found on the surface is higher than that of G-positive S. aureus (
Figure 1, figure 2).
Fiber cloth in the kitchen and all
Objective the fiber cloth is lower than the concentration of the antibacterial cloth and the cleaning cloth in 167 [disinfected with hot water]degrees]F (75[degrees]C)(
Figure 1, figure 2).
Overall, the use of a QAC disinfectant results in a lower concentration of bacteria on stainless steel
Steel kitchen surface.
Kitchen fiber cloth disinfected in 167 [with hot water]degrees]F(75[degrees]C)
Did not lead to significantly different concentrations.
Aureus than antibacterial cloth (E. coli: E.
The bacterial concentration on the surface of E. coli after using kitchen fiber cloth was significantly reduced (p < . 050)
More than found after using ordinary cloth.
Although the concentration of Saureus and E.
E. coli found on stainless steel
The steel kitchen surface is higher for all people
167 [purpose of disinfection with hot water fiber clothdegrees]F (75[degrees]C)
Compared to the QAC disinfectant, after using a regular cloth disinfected with hypochlorite acid salt, the concentration is relatively similar (Figure1). For both S. aureus (
Bacterial concentration on stainless steel
The steel kitchen surface of the cloth disinfected with hypochlorite acid is higher.
These results show that,
Purpose of disinfection with hot water fiber cloth [degrees]F (75[degrees]C)
In the removal of grams-as effective
Positive and G
Negative bacteria from stainless steel
The steel kitchen surface is a plain cloth disinfected with hypochlorite acid.
Hypochlorite acid disinfectants have disadvantages compared to other disinfectants: they cause corrosion of metal equipment and are subjected to most organic materials (
Hobbs, Gilbert, 1981).
So on stainless steel
Best use of steel surface-
Fiber clothing in 167 [purpose made with hot water]degrees]F (75[degrees]C)
Instead of sanitizing hypochlorite acid.
In general, this is easy to happen in the food preparation field and in the food industry.
S. aureus contamination in dairy products such as pumpkin, pesto, cream and cheese
The purpose is to use fiber cloth to limit the number of bacteria present.
Conclusion The fiber cloth can effectively limit the aggregation of bacteria on the surface of food industry.
This method is both cheap and eco-friendly.
To remove gram-
Positive and G-
Negative bacteria disinfected in 167 [with hot water, kitchen fiber clothdegrees]F (75[degrees]C)
After disinfection with QAC, carry out similar clothing disinfection.
Therefore, this method can be used as a chemical.
Free, non-toxic alternatives. The all-
Objective the disinfection performance of fiber clothing is consistent with the results of antibacterial cloth and cleaning cloth disinfected with hot water at 167 [degrees]F (75[degrees]C)
There is also a clean cloth disinfected with hypochlorite salt.
These results show that all
Purpose in the food industry using ordinary cloth disinfected with hot water or hypochlorite acid, fiber garments disinfected with hot water can be used as an alternative.
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Author: Peter Dingle, senior lecturer in health and environment, School of Environmental Science, Murdoch University, Australia, Murdoch WA 6150. E-mail: p. dingle@murdoch. edu. au.
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Joined: June 6th, 2019
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