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What are the diseases that the newborn can obtain genetically?

Posted by vivekc45 on March 26th, 2020

Many congenital diseases in a person are inherited. Genetic disorders are caused when there is a problem in the chromosomes or genes of the baby and lead to physical abnormalities or illnesses. A newborn is prone to numerous genetic diseases that he/she may adopt from his parents or which may develop over time. When both mother and father carry the trait of a particular genetic abnormality, the baby has a one-fourth chance of inheriting it. These disorders can be metabolic, blood-related or may be determined by other conditions. One must get them checked in time from specialized hospitals in Panchkula.

These genetically determined diseases can be categorized as follows:

  • Single gene disorders

This leads to an illness that is caused by a change in one gene. Example: cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anaemia, Tay-Sachs disease, etc.

  • Chromosomal abnormalities 

These are caused due to the absence of the ideal number of chromosomes. There could be missing or extra chromosomes or pieces of chromosomes. Example: Down syndrome

  • Multifactorial or complex disorders 

They are caused due to a combination of genetic predispositions and environmental factors. Examples: heart defects and spina bifida.

  • Teratogenic disorders 

They cause genetic problems in newborns when he/she be exposed to substances during pregnancy known as “teratogens” which could be alcohol, drugs, lead, high levels of radiation exposure, and certain medications, other toxic substances, etc.

Common Genetic Diseases in Newborns

  • Cystic fibrosis  

This is a life-threatening genetic disease that can cause a fatal lung infection due to abnormally thick, sticky mucus clogging the lungs. This mucus can also block the pancreas or bile ducts of the liver. Therefore, it must not be taken lightly and treated at the earliest.

  • Phenylketonuria

genetically determined metabolic disorder where the body is unable to use an important amino acid called phenylalanine. It creates a situation of an excess of the acid in the body which is toxic to the central nervous system and can cause brain damage. This disease can be easily diagnosed by getting tested soon after birth from some of the best hospitals for pregnancy in Gurgaon. 

  • Sickle cell

This is also a blood-based genetic disorder where the haemoglobin has an abnormal structure. The blood cells become sickle-shapes and can cause a blockage in the passage of oxygen transmission to important organs. 

  • Thalassemias

This is a blood disorder that makes the body produce fewer healthy red blood cells and hence less haemoglobin than normal. The lack of this protein in red blood cells develops the problem of anaemia.

There can be various other diseases as well with which a newborn might be genetically affected. The symptoms of the diseases must be noticed and diagnosed at an early stage to avoid severe damages. Tests and screening can be done both before and after the pregnancy by many known pregnancy specialist doctors in ChandigarhGenetic counselling can also be taken up by parents to understand their genes better to avoid future risks to the baby. 

Also See: Blood Cells, Sickle Cell, Red Blood, Genetic Disorders, Genetic, Diseases, Disorders

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