Research progress on protein/polypeptide liposomes
Posted by Joanna Bowie on April 1st, 2019
As a protein polypeptide drug carrier, liposome can protect the structure and biological activity of the drug, improve stability, extend half-life, and achieve sustained release. Liposomes can also prevent the reaction of embedded protein peptide drugs with external environmental components, and can avoid the effects of heat, light, etc. on protein peptide drugs.
Novel preparation method of protein polypeptide drug liposome
polypeptide drug liposome Protein polypeptide drugs need to pay attention to many technological conditions and parameters during liposome preparation due to their own characteristics, such as avoiding the use of high temperature, organic solvent, surfactant, intense ultrasound and other conditions as far as possible. Therefore, the traditional liposome preparation method has the problems of low encapsulation rate, low drug loading rate, difficulty in mass production and the like. Therefore, scientists turn their attention to a new liposome preparation method to overcome the shortcomings of liposome as a protein polypeptide drug carrier. The main new preparation methods include precursor liposome method, CO2 supercritical method, freeze melting method, ion gradient method, etc.
Encapsulation rate has always been a hot topic in liposome research. Effective entrapment of drugs by liposomes is the key to its clinical therapeutic effect. However, protein polypeptide drugs are mostly water soluble, and their entrapment efficiency is relatively low when liposomes are generally used as carriers. Therefore, it is particularly important to find better ways to improve the entrapment efficiency of protein polypeptide drugs encapsulated by liposomes.
Compound phospholipid as membrane material
Complex phospholipids are a new liposome technology in the preparation of liposomes. Phospholipid materials with two different phase transition temperatures are used as membranes to form phospholipid bilayer spherical drug carriers in different phase regions. Due to the formation of different phase regions in the complex phospholipid liposomes, the prepared liposomes can greatly increase the encapsulation efficiency of certain protein polypeptide drugs.
Although polypeptide protein drugs have many advantages, they also bring many difficulties in development due to their own characteristics. Even if they are transported by liposome, they cannot achieve the ideal encapsulation rate due to their excellent water solubility, and leakage, sudden release and other phenomena. Polycystic liposomes are a novel type of liposome with a larger particle size and more enveloping volume, which is very beneficial for the encapsulation of protein polypeptide drugs. When a vesicle in a multivesicular liposome ruptures, the active substance is released from the ruptured vesicle, and other intact vesicles remain intact, so the multivesicular liposome has a good sustained release effect at the same time.
Modification of liposomes
Another important way to increase the encapsulation efficiency of liposomes is to modify traditional liposomes. By structurally modifying the surface of the liposome membrane, a special "invisible liposome" can be obtained, thereby increasing the encapsulation efficiency of the liposome.
In addition to the above methods, there are other methods that can also improve the encapsulation efficiency of protein polypeptide liposomes, such as changing the composition of lipid membrane, which is closely related to the structure of liposomes and has a great influence on the encapsulation efficiency. Secondly, the types and concentrations of stabilizers and dispersants also have certain effects on the encapsulation efficiency of liposomes.
Liposomes have outstanding advantages as carriers of protein polypeptide drugs. With the continuous development of science and technology and the in-depth study of liposome principles and preparation methods, new liposome preparation techniques have been continuously invented and innovated, including precursor liposome method, CO2 supercritical method, freeze melting method, ion gradient method, etc.
Improving the entrapment efficiency of liposomes has always been a hot and difficult point in liposome research, especially for protein polypeptide drugs with good water solubility. At present, methods to improve the entrapment efficiency of protein polypeptide drugs liposomes include: Preparing liposomes with composite phospholipids as membrane materials; Preparing multivesicular liposome; The liposome is chemically modified. Although there are many methods to improve the entrapment efficiency of protein polypeptide liposomes, there are still many limitations. With the continuous development of science and technology, the research on the interaction between encapsulated material and liposome membrane will become the theoretical basis for all new technologies and methods. It is believed that better and more effective liposome technology for coating protein polypeptide drugs can be created, and protein polypeptide drugs can be widely used.
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