The principle of radio frequency technology and sixteen application areas

Posted by sere on January 16th, 2021

Radio Frequency Technology (RF) is the abbreviation of Radio Frequency. The more common applications are Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), which is often called inductive electronic chip or proximity card, proximity card, non-contact card, electronic label, electronic barcode, etc. The principle is that the scanner emits a radio wave energy of a specific frequency to the receiver to drive the receiver circuit to send out the internal code, and then the scanner receives the code. The special feature of the receiver is that it does not use batteries, contacts, and swipe cards so it is not afraid of dirt, and the chip password is the only one in the world that cannot be copied, with high security and long life. RFID has a wide range of applications. Typical applications currently include animal chips, car chip anti-theft devices, access control, parking lot control, production line automation, and material management. There are two types of RFID tags: active tags and passive tags.

Among them, electronic tags are also called radio frequency tags, transponders, and data carriers; readers are also called reading devices, scanners, communicators, and readers (depending on whether the electronic tags can rewrite data wirelessly). The electronic tag and the reader realize the spatial (non-contact) coupling of the radio frequency signal through the coupling element. In the coupling channel, according to the timing relationship, the energy transfer and the data exchange are realized.

There are two types of RF signal coupling between the reader and the electronic tag.

(1) Inductive coupling. The transformer model realizes the coupling through the spatial high frequency alternating magnetic field, which is based on the law of electromagnetic induction, as shown in the figure:

(2) Electromagnetic backscatter coupling: Radar principle model, the emitted electromagnetic wave is reflected when it hits the target, and the target information is carried back at the same time, based on the law of electromagnetic wave propagation in space

The inductive coupling method is generally suitable for short-range radio frequency identification systems operating at low and high frequencies. Typical operating frequencies are: 125kHz, 225kHz and 13.56MHz. The recognition range is less than 1m, and the typical range is 10-20cm.

The electromagnetic backscatter coupling method is generally suitable for ultra-high frequency and microwave working long-distance radio frequency identification systems. Typical operating frequencies are: 433MHz, 915MHz, 2.45GHz, 5.8GHz. The recognition range is greater than 1m, and the typical range is 3-l0m

RF technology application areas:

  1. Logistics: cargo tracking in the logistics process, automatic information collection, warehousing applications, port applications, postal services, express delivery

  2. Retail: real-time statistics of sales data of commodities, replenishment, anti-theft

  3. Manufacturing industry: real-time monitoring of production data, quality tracking, automated production

  4. Apparel industry: automated production, warehouse management, brand management, single product management, channel management

  5. Medical treatment: medical equipment management, patient identification, baby anti-theft

  6. Identification: electronic passports, ID cards, student IDs and other electronic documents.

  7. Anti-counterfeiting: anti-counterfeiting of valuables (tobacco, alcohol, medicine), anti-counterfeiting of tickets, etc.

  8. Asset management: all kinds of assets (precious or large quantity, high similarity or dangerous goods, etc.)

  9. Transportation: high-speed non-stop, taxi management, bus hub management, railway locomotive identification, etc.

  10. Food: freshness management of fruits, vegetables, fresh, food, etc.

  11. Animal identification: identification and management of training animals, livestock, pets, etc.

  12. Libraries: bookstores, libraries, publishing houses, etc.

  13. Automobile: manufacturing, anti-theft, positioning, car keys

  14. Aviation: manufacturing, passenger ticket, luggage and parcel tracking

  15. Military: identification and tracking of ammunition, guns, materials, personnel, trucks, etc.

  16. Power: Intelligent power inspection, smart meter reading and power asset management

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